There are a few code formatting tools I like to use in just about any Python (and Django) project: black, isort, and flake8. These all serve slightly different purposes, and there are alternatives to each. A full discussion/comparison of code formatting tools in Python is beyond the scope of this post*, but in brief:
- Black is great because it automatically formats my code with a well recognized style. I have my editor (currently VSCode) set to run black when I save a file. This makes my code consistent, and is great in teams I've worked in because it means we don't have to worry about styling in code reviews.
- isort is great for sorting imports. Even though I tend to do a bit of this sorting as I go, I inevitably swap an import or leave one out of place. This organizes them so I don't have to.
- flake8 catches minor (and sometimes not so minor) code issues like unused variables.
There are a few ways to configure these libraries, but for now, I have them in their own individual config files. These should all be placed at the root of your Django project.
For black, I use the default config. In some other projects, I've extended the line length, but currently I'm leaving black as default.
isort.cfg is the filename and mine looks like this:
[settings] skip_glob=env/* extend_skip_glob=**/migrations profile=black
Where env is the name of your environment. The extended skip for migrations isn't necessary, but I wanted to avoid changing my migration files. The black profile is nice to avoid conflicts between black and isort. Skipping your environment is likely required. When I've left this out (or accidentally run isort without the config) isort runs against the libaries in my environment and ends up breaking them by creating circular dependencies. One way to make sure you aren't going to do this is to run
isort --check-only . to make sure it's only running against your files before actually running it.
.flake8 is the filename and mine looks like this:
[flake8] exclude = migrations __pycache__ manage.py settings.py env .pytest_cache .vscode
These exclude all of the files in the folders
env (where env is the name of your environment). You may want to exclude more, or not exclude some of these, but I've found this to work for me.
Finally, on other projects I've used all of these with pre-commit, which is a library that uses git hooks to prevent you from committing code that doesn't use the standards you and your team have set, such as black, isort, and flake8, or some other combination of code formatting tools. It also allows you to use a single command to run all three tools.
Unfortunately, I can't figure out how to use pre-commit in my current setup with my python projects in WSL and my git client (Fork) in Windows. Perhaps this is a sign I should start using the git CLI more. But if you know of a good way to use precommit with this setup, let me know!
*between writing and publishing this I read James Bennett covering similar ground. He goes a bit deeper on some of the tools I mention (and other related tools), so I wanted to link this for further reading.